Operating risks

Country risk with respect to new markets

The new market penetration policy, especially for higher developed markets, exposes the Group to these risks: the risk of political, social and economic instability, of an incorrect evaluation of local regulations (business, tax, signalling system validation regulations), the difficulty of protecting intellectual property, the fluctuation of exchange rates and the credit standing of the counterparties, with a negative impact on the Group’s financial condition. The country risk is assessed during the process for the selection of offers and tenders to take part in. The opportunity to mitigate this risk and the definition of any related actions are taken into consideration when preparing the proposals.

Please refer to the relevant section of this report for the explanation of the status of the job-orders in Libya, suspended because of the riots occurred in the country and the delays recorded by the job-order in Greece exacerbated by the unfavourable economic trend of the country.

Public administration companies and contracts lasting several years

The Group’s business mostly depend on public administration companies and, in particular in the transportation solution business, on significant contract lasting several years.

Any delays, changes, reviews or cancellation of one or more acquired relevant contracts lasting several years may adversely affect business and the economic and financial condition of the Group.

Moreover, the evaluation of the contracts lasting several years is based on the state-of-completion method and therefore uses estimates of the costs to be incurred for the completion of activities, of the project risks (technical, legal, tax and commercial) and of the state of completion of the activities. These estimates are based on assumptions relating to the effects of future events which, given the type and complexity of the projects to be performed, might occur in forms different from those estimated, with a negative effect on the economic and financial performance of the project.

To mitigate these risks, the following should be noted:

  • market diversification and monitoring of country and regulation risk;
  • structured process of project review with the involvement of the senior management;
  • the review and periodic updating of order estimates;
  • adoption of Risk Management processes at the offer stage and during the project implementation, and adoption of Lifecycle Management processes based on the constant comparison of physical and accounting progress and phase review processes.

Budget processes and Risk Management project planning

The project team may not be able to perform the project within budget and time constraints, in particular for projects in new markets and complex projects, due to non-efficient project controlling processes; risk management might not be efficient if it is based on incomplete or incorrect information or if it is not adequately defined and monitored. This risk might cause delays in the identification of the problems for project performance and inaccurate reporting and planning, with a negative impact on the Group’s financial condition.

To mitigate this risk, processes have been defined and monitored for controlling the physical and accounting and risk management progress, the clear-cut responsibilities of the Project Manager and the Order Controller, managerial reviews of project performance, processes for the review of estimates of offers and the independent review of the Risk Management function. Specific initiatives are being carried out in order to structure the Group controlling processes.

Third parties (sub-contractors, sub-suppliers and partners)

In both the business in which the Group operates sub-contractors are widely used to supply sub-systems or assembling and installation services and sub-suppliers of goods or services. The Group’s ability to meet its obligations to the customers is then subject to the good performance of the contractual obligations on part of both sub-contractors and sub-suppliers. Their non-performance may cause Ansaldo STS non-performance, with negative impacts on reputation and, unless compensation is possibly sought through remedy actions against sub-contractors and sub-suppliers, on the Group’s financial condition.

The Group also completes some orders in partnership with other operators, especially in the transportation solution business. In these forms of partnership, generally each partner is jointly liable to the customer for the construction of the entire work. In case of breach or of damage caused to the customer by one associated operator, Ansaldo STS may have to replace the breaching or damaging party and to fully repay the damage caused to the customer, without prejudice to the right of recourse against the defaulting partner. Any inefficiency or continuation of actions of recourse against the defaulting partners liable for any damages might adversely affect the Group’s business and financial condition.

Moreover, as part of the Group’s internationalisation strategy, the preliminary assessment and the related selection of partners, sub-contractors and sub-suppliers in new markets might be inadequate, with negative impacts on orders, reputation, financial condition and efficacy of partnership governance (such as difference of partners’ opinions, misalignments of risks and costs/benefits for partners individually).

To mitigate this risk, there are processes for selecting and qualifying sub-contractors and sub-suppliers, collaboration with known partners of proven standing, the definition, execution and management of adequate contractual and grouping clauses, risk management processes and the demand, where applicable, of specific guarantees. In selecting sub-contractors and partners in new markets, these processes are followed through specific scouting activities. Further actions are being carried out to make more efficient the evaluation of sub-contractors and partners during the offer.

“ Ansaldo STS believes that managing the entire supply chain is a critical success factor: it therefore adopts qualification criteria that include respect for the environment, health and safety, and constant monitoring.”
> Please see page 142 of the 2011 Sustainability Report for further information

Adequacy and efficiency in developments and technical references

Development projects may not be carried out within budget and time constraints and requirements may not be understood and identified clearly, with a negative impact on margins, delivery times and customer satisfaction. Under certain circumstances, the Group could not be able to have adequate market and operation references for some products, with the risk of losing commercial opportunities or incur in non-compliance in performing the project, with negative effects on the Group competiveness and financial position.
The planning and control of the development activities have been defined in order to ensure that priorities are evaluated properly and time and costs are controlled. The risk of not having adequate references for some new products is carefully assessed during the offer and managed with recovery plans during the construction phase.

Customer or third party liability for defects in the products sold or delays in delivery

The technological complexity and the close times for the delivery of Group products and systems might expose the Group to liability for delayed or lack of supply of products or services in the contract, for their non-compliance with customer requests (for example due to defects in the designing and construction), to defaults and/or delays in marketing, after-sale services and product maintenance and review. Moreover, many products and systems supplied by the Group are subject to certifications or validations, also released by third parties.

These liabilities may depend on causes that are directly attributable to the Group or third parties, such as sub-suppliers or sub-contractors. In the event that these risks may occur, there could be negative effects on the business and the economic and financial condition and reputation of the Group. These negative effects may include the incurring of costs for repairing faulty products or in extreme cases the withdrawal of the products from the market. With regard to these effects, even in the case where specific insurance coverage is applicable, the limit of liability might be exceeded or, when claim occurs, insurance premiums might be increased, with a negative impact on the Group’s financial condition.

To mitigate these risks, the Group takes out specific insurance coverage, carefully oversees the engineering, validation and monitoring of returns and, in concert with the Risk Management process, identifies mitigation actions for each project and includes appropriate contingencies in the order estimate.

Legal disputes

The complexity of the relations with third parties (customers, sub-contractors/sub-suppliers and partners), of the content of the systems and products made, and the risks inherent in the business expose the Group to a significant risk of legal disputes. The legal dispute may also concern the tender awards. The definition of disputes might be complex and be completed in the long-term, causing delays in the implementation of projects with negative effects on the business and the economic and financial condition of the Group.

To mitigate this risk, there risk management processes during the offer and during the management phase, contractual clauses are carefully checked with the support of the legal function and a prudential approach is taken when recognising specific items as a cost of orders and a provision for risks.

Human resources management

The Group provides products and systems with high technological content. To build them, it is necessary to use human resources with specific preparation that is hard to gather from the market. The success of the business development plans, in particular in new markets, also depends on the ability to attract, retain and develop the expertise of human resources, especially in order to operate in an international scenario.

To mitigate this risk, human resources management policies are defined that are strictly related with the business needs, in particular at the present stage of business integrated management and expansion in new markets. An integrated system of management and development of human resources was defined and implemented in the course of 2011. In this context, periodic controls have been made on skills and performances and steps have been taken for the development of skills and the best allocation of resources.

A few existing critical points refer to the adequacy of some organizational roles of the working groups, redefined in the scope of the recent organizational change, that may compromise the achievement of some benefits resulting from the change of corporate processes. Specific initiatives have been taken to strengthen these roles.

“ Ansaldo STS seeks to continually improve its training programmes as the basic means of growing its human resources and increasing their skills.”
> Please see page 112 of the 2011 Sustainability Report for further information

Development, safety and environment compliance
The Group is subject to health, safety and environment regulations in the various countries in which it operates.

The non-compliance with these rules as a result of operating processes that are not adequately monitored or, in particular in new markets, of a non-adequate evaluation of these compliance requirements might expose the Group to risks with significant impacts on the business, the economic and financial condition and the reputation of the Group.

To mitigate this risk, the Group adopts health, safety and environment management systems aiming at ensuring the stringent compliance with rules in accordance with best practices and subject to internal and external monitoring. These management systems are certified - in compliance with the OHSAS 18001 standard on work safety and the ISO14001 standard on environment – in some of the main companies of the Group. A programme is being implemented to extend these certifications to the main Group companies.

The requirements of new markets are evaluated during the offer and support is guaranteed also through external consultants. Common policies and procedures have been defined in order to guarantee consistent conducts across the various companies of the group, also taking account of the specific local requirements.

“ Carbon Disclosure Project: with 79 points out of 100, Ansaldo STS was among the top 10 companies in Italy for its commitment to protecting the environment and reducing climate change.”
> Please see page 160 of the 2011 Sustainability Report for further information
“ Ansaldo STS works constantly to provide and maintain a healthy and safe workplace, and prevent accidents, illness or health problems in its staff, suppliers, clients and visitors.”
> Please see page 179 of the 2011 Sustainability Report for further information


Registered Office: 16151 Genoa Via Paolo Mantovani, 3 - 5
Paid-in Share Capital EUR 70,000,000 R.E.A. n. 421689 Register of Enterprises of Genoa Tax Code 01371160662
A Finmeccanica Company